Alexander the great battle at granicus

Battle of the Granicus

The Persian line first began to give way at the point where Alexander was engaged; then the whole center collapsed. With the exception of 2, prisoners—and possibly a few others who threw themselves on the ground and concealed themselves among the dead—the mercenaries were cut down.

Charging out towards the extreme right of the two cavalry forces already engaged, the Macedonian horseman easily outflanked the Persian left wing. Some military historians have interpreted the Persian battle array as a tactical blunder.

The extreme right of the Persian forward line was held by 1, Median cavalry and 2, cavalry of unknown nationality, both under the command of Rheomithres, and by 2, Bactrian cavalry. The sudden death of his father had encouraged the barbarians to the north and west—and several Greek cities to the south—to revolt against Macedonian rule.

His first goal was to secure the Aegean coastline thus denying the Persian naval fleet basses with which they could sail against Greece in his absence.

Other national contingents occupied the centre, numerous and picked for their valour. The Macedonian were to fight under conditions dictated by the Persians. He had no sooner received another sarissa from the Companion Demaratus than the Persian cavalry commander Mithridates appeared at the head of a squadron.

Alexander was with the Companions on the right flank. With Alexander at the head of the royal squadron, the six other Companion cavalry squadrons crossed the Alexander the great battle at granicus and fought their way up its eastern bank, as the Persians hurled their javelins down upon them.

Alexander the Great: The Battle of Granicus

Articles such as this one were acquired and published with the primary aim of expanding the information on Britannica. The first Macedonians who came to grips with the Persians were cut down, despite their valor.

Believing themselves to be a match for Alexander in the field, the Persians, who failed to use their professional infantry, simply counted on their numerically superior cavalry and their personal bravery to secure a victory.

Mixter and originally published in the December issue of Military History magazine. Arrian, a 2nd-century Greek historian whose account of the battle is the most comprehensive and reliable, described the hard-fought cavalry action that ensued in the river of Granicus and on its bank: Zoom [ permanent dead link ] That account of the battle is directly contradicted by Diodorus Siculus who states "When Alexander learned of the concentration of the Persian forces, he advanced rapidly and encamped opposite the enemy, so that the Granicus flowed between the encampments.

Among the Persian high command known to have died in the attempt to slay Alexander were: He ordered Lysippus, considered perhaps the greatest sculptor of the day, to make bronze statues of the 25 Companion cavalrymen who fell in the initial feint attack. Once the center had caved in, both wings of the Persian cavalry—Memnon among them—panicked and fled.

With the triumph at the Granicus, the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated from Persian rule—and the beachhead was established for later campaigns deeper in Persian territory. He disagreed with Alexander about the battle plan, pointing out the difficulties in the river crossing and warning that an immediate attack invited disaster.

Greek mercenaries serving in the Persian army tried to surrender, but Alexander treated them as traitors. After the death of his father, King Philip II, in BC, Alexander III won the allegiance of the army and ascended to the throne of Macedon at age 20, only to find himself at the head of a rebellious kingdom.

In the spring of BC, Alexander took 2, cavalry and went on a day march from Macedon to Hellespont, to join Parmenion in Asia. Although the Persians maintained a vigorous resistance throughout the bitter struggle, they failed to withstand the charge of the Companion cavalry and were continually pushed back.

Macedonian, dead and 2, wounded of 40,; Persian, 5, dead and 2, captured of 50, Alexander now gave the signal for the remaining Macedonian right wing cavalry including the elite companions, to cross the river and join the attack.

Green devotes an entire appendix in support of his interpretation, taking the view that for political reasons, Alexander could not admit even a temporary defeat. The Macedonians could not pursue the fleeing cavalry very far, however. The first Macedonians who came to grips with the Persians were cut down, despite their valor.

In the spring of BC, Alexander led a combined Macedonian, Greek and Balkan historically referred to as Macedonian army of 32, infantry and 5, cavalries on a day march from Macedon to the Hellespont today called the Dardanelles.

The Granicus is also worthy of note because it is one of the earliest battles on record that was decided largely by cavalry strength, though coordinated with infantry support.

Persian losses amounted to 4, killed—about 1, cavalry and perhaps 3, Greek mercenaries—along with 2, taken prisoner.Map of the battle of the Granicus ( BCE) The consequence of the battle was that the road to the south was open to Alexander; Sardes and Ephesus were taken without fight.

Dascylium and Gordium, other Persian strongholds, were unprotected too. Alexander was not to encounter resistance until the Persian navy appeared at Miletus. Alexander the Great at the Battle of Granicus: A Campaign in Context [Rupert Matthews] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

One of the most famous generals all time, Alexander was just 20 when he led his army into battle at Granicus. Despite his youth and his army being heavily outnumbered4/5(1).

Battle on the Granicus In the last days of May or the first days of JuneAlexander 's army clashed with a Persian army on the boards of the river Granicus.

The Persian king Darius III was not present; the Macedonians and Greeks had to fight against the armies recruited from the satrapies of Asia Minor. The Battle of the Granicus River in May BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in Northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy, it was here that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor, including a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of.

Alexander's casualties were non existent, with losses of cavalry and infantry. Alexander's victory at Granicus shattered the myth of Persian invincibility and launched the persona of Alexander as one of history's great commanders.

By Alexander’s order, all who had fallen in the Battle of the Granicus, including the Persian leaders and Greek mercenaries, were buried with military honors.

To the surviving relatives of his fallen soldiers, Alexander granted.

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