Criminological perspective on female gang behavior

Some pursue relatively brief careers in relation to male criminal careers in prostitution, drug offenses, or minor property crimes like shoplifting or check forging. Regardless, female gang violence has remained far less common than male gang violence. The major exception to this age-by-gender pattern is for prostitution, where the age-curve for females displays a much greater concentration of arrests among the young, compared to an older age-curve for males.

Yale University Press, A meta-analysis of cross cultural risk markers for intimate partner violence. She has also been co-Investigator on several federally-funded grants aimed at collecting longitudinal and contextual data on such things as school-based offending and victimization, student fear of crime and perceptions of safety, and bar-related violence.

Causal factors identified by traditional theories of crime such as anomie, social control, and differential association-social learning appear equally applicable to female and male offending Steffensmeier and Allan, Different countries and cultures have different strengths in confronting IPV.

Prevention efforts are frequently focused on younger individuals. Sokoloff and Pratt argues for greater attention to issues of diversity, such as social class and race.

Trends in female crime relative to male crime are more complex. The proposition that wives have as great a potential for violence as husbands has had some currency among criminologists Straus and Gelles. Most efforts to understand crime have focused on male crime, since men have greater involvement in criminal behavior.

Female offending was largely ignored. Men will take risks in order to build status or gain competitive advantage, while women may take greater risks to protect loved ones or to sustain relationships. Empirical research and clinical reports indicate that those victimized by IPV have a wide range of reactions, ranging from acceptance to fighting back or leaving the partner.

He is author of Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: At the onset of the twenty-first century, female gang involvement was described as a sort of "auxiliary" to a male gang.

Toward a Functional Theory of Deviant Type-scripts. Early explanations of female crime reflected prevailing views regarding crime and human behavior more generally.

Female Gang Involvement

The photo essays in the final section can move you by the dramatic and stark realities. It demonstrates that to understand gangs one has to go beyond simply examining the etiology of crime. This interpretation of the "dark side" of female liberation was welcomed enthusiastically by the media.

Domestic violence at the margins: Temple University Press, National Institute of Mental Health, This distinction is consistent with the tendency for females to operate alone and for males to dominate gangs and criminal subcultures.

In the United Stateswomen constitute less than 20 percent of arrests for most crime categories. Sorting Out the Caste and Crime Conundrum. This is the feminist approach to IPV. Female arrests for these crime categories has been as high as 30 to 40 percent, especially since the mids. The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence.

Glueck, Sheldon, and Glueck, Eleanor.

Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives

She has published numerous works aimed at developing and testing theories of crime, victimization, and crime prevention. When women do become involved with others in offenses, the group is likely to be small and relatively nonpermanent.

Pollak also noted that there is considerable overlap in causative factors for delinquency among girls and boys, and women and men.

Finally, expectations of female sexuality may restrict the deviant roles available to women to those of sexual media or service roles.

Self-report studies also confirm the UCR patterns of relatively low female involvement in serious offenses and greater involvement in the less serious categories. The earlier physical maturity of adolescent females also contributes to their dating and associating with older male delinquent peers.

However, women who commit crime are somewhat more likely than men to have been abused physically, psychologically, or sexually, both in childhood and as adults.

Femininity stereotypes are the antitheses of those qualities valued in the criminal subculture Steffensmeier, ; therefore, crime is almost always more destructive of life chances for females than for males.

They suggest that a large body of research using injury rates, police records, crime victim surveys, and other agencies support the asymmetry of IPV. Some of them commit crime over several years and serve multiple jail or prison terms in the process.

GENDER AND CRIME

Instead, consistent with gendered type scripts and roles e.Explanations of the Causes (Etiology) of Gang Behavior Introduction: The purpose of this lecture is to discuss the MAJOR explanations of gang behavior.

Louis Kontos, David Brotherton and Luis Barrios, eds., Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives (New York: Columbia University Press, ). This collection of fifteen articles examines the question of gangs in society from a critical criminology perspective, challenging orthodox criminological and sociological approaches.

Next, this chapter discusses traditional theories of female crime, followed by feminist critiques of previous research focusing on women. attitudes about criminal behavior as well as criminal offenders. At the end of this chapter, we will address within these emerging political perspectives, that feminist criminology began to question.

Introduction. The study of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) developed in the late 20th century and includes work relating to the topics of battered women, spouse abuse, marital violence, and dating mint-body.com history of IPV theory and.

Feminist Theories of Criminal Behavior KATHRYN M. WHITELEY presence and perspective. The first work often The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, First Edition.

Edited by Jay S. Albanese.

Gender and Crime: A General Strain Theory Perspective

feminist criminological research wherein female offenders are incorporated into the samples and. A review of the research literature on female gang involvement identifies three central research themes.

These are the need for a feminist perspective, changes in the magnitude of the problem, and the degree to which membership can be a form of liberation. A research agenda is proposed that offers examples of how a common set of theoretical issues might guide studies of both male and female.

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Criminological perspective on female gang behavior
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