Gambira was released during a mass pardon of prisoners on 13 January as part of the — Burmese political reforms. However, they are treated more favourably than most maechi, being able to receive training, practice meditation and sit for the same qualification examinations as the monks.
Buddhism flourished under the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kings. The Uyghurs conquered the area in the 8th century and blended with the local Iranian peoples, absorbing the Buddhist culture of the region.
Indians and Iranians lived in major cities of this region like Kashgar and Khotan. Shwedagon Pagoda has been an important venue for large public meetings where both Aung San and his daughter Aung San Suu Kyi had made their famous speeches. He ceased to be a monk in Aprilstating that he had been unable to find a monastery to join due to his status as a former prisoner.
Purusapurawhich he used as a capital. Ordination of women in Buddhism Thilashin during alms round in Yangon. Emperor Kanishka — CE is particularly known for his support of Buddhism.
The Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I reigned c. Civilian governments, after the country gained independence, patronised Buddhism, donating large sums to fund the upkeep and building of Buddhist monuments.
There have been efforts by some thilashins to reinstate the bhikkhuni lineage, although there are reservations from the government and general populace. The full bhikkhuni nuns lineage of Theravada Buddhism died out, and for various technical and social reasons was therefore permanently absent.
The governing council of Buddhism in Myanmar has ruled that there can be no valid ordination of women in modern times, though some Burmese monks disagree.
Allegedly during the council there were altogether three hundred thousand verses and over nine million statements compiled, and it took twelve years to complete. One of the most famous Indo-Greek kings is Menander reigned c.
Kushan empire and Gandharan Buddhism[ edit ] See also: Parents expect them to stay at the kyaung immersed in the teachings of the Buddha as members of the Sangha for three months or longer.
After the fall of the Kushans, small kingdoms ruled the Gandharan region, and later the Hephthalite White Huns conquered the area circa s— A large quantity of sculptures combining Buddhist and purely Hellenistic styles and iconography were excavated at the Gandharan site of Hadda.
As Buddhism reached many of these lands, Buddhists began to translate and produce texts in the local languages, such as Khotanese a Middle Iranian languageSogdian also IranianUigur TurkishTangutTibetanand Chinese.
Buddhist monasticism Monks at the Mahagandhayon Monastery in Amarapura are ordained into the Shwegyin Nikayaone of the more orthodox monastic orders.
Under the Hephthalites, Gandharan Buddhism continued to thrive in cities like Balkh Bactriaas remarked by Xuanzang who visited the region in the 7th century. It eventually encompassed much of northern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. During the second university strike in history ofthe students camped out on the Shwedagon terraces.
Buddhism made major contributions in the development of Burmese politics. A new Theravada bhikkhuni sangha was first convened inand since then many more have taken the full vows.
Although this change was probably effected without significant loss of integrity to the canon, this event was of particular significance since Sanskrit was the sacred language of Brahmanism in India, and was also being used by other thinkers, regardless of their specific religious or philosophical allegiance, thus enabling a far wider audience to gain access to Buddhist ideas and practices.
Thilashins often reside in either separate quarters or in segregated kyaung temple-monasteries. There has been a revival of monastic schools since the s with the deepening economic crisis. Mass protests erupted over this and junta troops began firing on monks, civilians, and demonstrators in the largest clash sincewhich left thousands injured and hundreds dead.
However, as in many other Theravadin countries, women have created a niche for themselves as renunciants not recognised by the state-empowered Sangharaja or even the Sangha in general. Aung San Suu Kyi returned from London to lead the National League for Democracy which was founded during the popular uprisingbut was placed under house arrest in ; since she is a devout Buddhist and leader of the opposition, she is considered a socially engaged Buddhist.
In addition, leaders of political parties and parliamentarians, in particular U Nupassed legislation influenced by Buddhism. However, within Myanmar, thilashins remain the only monastic option for women at this time. By the end of the 12th century, following the Islamic conquest of the Buddhist strongholds in Bihar and the loss of political support coupled with social pressures, the practice of Buddhism retreated to the Himalayan foothills in the North and Sri Lanka in the south.
These are used as honorifics to the Buddhist name given. Buddhism was present in this region from about the second century BCE. Another Chinese traveler who reached India after the end of the Guptas in the 7th century was Xuanzang. Gupta rulers such as Kumaragupta I c.
New robes are offered to bhikkhus at the beginning of Vassa, the end of which is marked by the Thadingyut Festival.
Overnight, junta forces invaded all the kyaungs in the country and imprisoned thousands of monks. InSaccavadi and Gunasari were ordained as bhikkhunis in Sri Lankathus becoming the first female Myanma novices in modern times to receive higher ordination in Sri Lanka.
Buddhist monks along with students had been in the forefront of the struggle for independence and later for democracy, the best known leaders in history being U Ottama and U Seinda in Rakhine Stateand U Wisara who died after a protracted hunger strike in Yangon prison.The History and Geography of Myanmar - Myanmar, also referred to as Burma, is located in Southeast Asia encompassing a land mass comparable to the size of Texas, with an area ofsquare kilometers (“Burma”).
The history of Buddhism is also characterized by the development of numerous movements, schisms, and schools, among them the Theravāda, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna traditions, with contrasting periods of expansion and retreat.
Theravada Buddhism in Burma initially coexisted with other forms of Buddhism and other religions. Buddhism in Myanmar is practiced by 90% of the country's population, and is predominantly of the Theravada tradition.   It is the most religious Buddhist country in terms of the proportion of monks in the population and proportion of income spent on religion.
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Pp. (2), Stiff printed black wrappers, lettered in gilt on the spine and front cover, 8vo. Than Tun is a Burmese scholar who has written widely in Burmese and in English on the history of Buddhism in Burma (now Myanmar).
History Of Buddhism Religion History Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, The areas which finally choose Buddhism are Cambodia, Burma, Laos, and Thailand. History Essay Writing Service Essays More History Essays.
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