More than two thirds of persons in the general population may experience a significant traumatic event at some point in their lives, and up to one fifth of people in the United States may experience such an event in any given year 1 — 5.
We also retrieved articles from key reviews 833 that were not included in our own literature review. However, less extreme stressors e. In reviewing the epidemiologic literature about mental health after disasters there are particular challenges that make the use of a single such definition limiting.
Within each category, we document findings about the prevalence, correlates, and course of PTSD. It is difficult to avoid this complication in postdisaster epidemiology, since disasters and exposures to them vary dramatically, even when the disasters are similar. In this paper, a total of 55 articles — one qualitative study, 53 quantitative studies, and one mixed-methods study — were eligible for inclusion.
For example, a tornado may pass through a town, leaving substantial devastation in its wake. In contrast, after a terrorist bombing of a bus, exposed persons could include those who were on the bus itself, those who were entering or exiting the bus at the time of the bombing, or the families of victims Given the unpredictable and overwhelming nature of disasters, rescue workers are at risk of suffering from negative psychological consequences.
Therefore, the prevalence of PTSD reported in most studies is properly understood as a period prevalence. Volume 31OctoberPages Resilience assessment of complex urban systems to natural disasters: Based on the results of the described new literature review, a preliminary concept which could be used to assess the seismic resilience of complex urban systems, taking into account all urban components which have been identified as having an important impact on the latter, is presented.
For example, schoolchildren exposed to the American Embassy bombing in Nairobi, Kenya, in could have seen or heard the event, had a parent who died in the event, or simply been in the vicinity of the incident The DSM-III diagnosis of PTSD also required the presence of one criterion B symptom pertaining to reexperiencing the trauma, one criterion C symptom pertaining to numbing or decreased responsiveness to the outside world, and two criterion D symptoms pertaining to hyperarousal.
PTSD prevalence and incidence In most instances, disasters take place over a short period of time. In one survey of US residents, 13 percent of the sample reported a lifetime exposure to natural or human-generated disaster 9. A substantial body of literature, particularly in the fields of sociology and hazard and risk management, has conceptualized disasters and their consequences This concept consists of three different parts: Although we limited this review to studies conducted afterthere is a substantial body of literature preceding that date, and this research had a profound influence on the empirical work that is reviewed here.
In the National Comorbidity Survey, As such, postdisaster studies may be particularly well-suited to providing incidence estimates of PTSD in their aftermath. The findings of this review indicated that rescue workers are at a high risk of experiencing psychological problems after a disaster deployment.
From an epidemiologic standpoint, this range of potential disaster exposures complicates both cross-study comparisons and extrapolation of observations from one disaster context to another.
Web table 1 posted on the Epidemiologic Reviews website http: We limited ourselves to studies that either explicitly assessed PTSD as a disorder or used DSM criteria to assess post-traumatic stress symptoms; we did not include several other studies that assessed only psychological symptoms or other psychiatric disorders after disasters.Sociology, Disasters and Emergency Management: History, Contributions, and Future Agenda* Thomas E.
Drabek, Ph.D. John Evans Professor, Emeritus Department of Sociology and Criminology literature reviews, definitions and issues of controversy; 2) major contributions to the. 44 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES Disaster preparedness is both a condition and a choice.
While the knowledge of disasters is a condition for learning their eventual management, the choice of capacities. A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article. A literature review is a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
Disaster Recovery: A review of the literature 2 This review examines literature on the effects of disasters on individuals, communities and the social environment, with particular consideration given to In Januaryfollowing. Emergency and Disaster Management Literature Review Search this Guide Search.
Emergency and Disaster Management: Literature Review. emergency management, crisis management, disaster planning, emergency management, leadership request a free digital inspection copy here This dynamic guide to doing literature reviews.
Subsequent reviews would do well to systematically assess the literature on other psychiatric conditions after disasters, as well as (perhaps more importantly) the literature on comorbidity.
Fourth, our review was limited by the extant epidemiologic literature and did not include important factors in PTSD epidemiology about which there is a.Download