Accuracy is also the degree to which each research process, instrument, and tool is related to each other. It is an accidental sample. Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that the research may be replicated by others, if necessary.
This may limit generalizing to the state population. Each research, therefore, should follow a procedure. Problem solving[ edit ] This type of research is done by an individual company for the problem faced by it.
Definition More than hundreds of definitions of research have been available in written form in different books, encyclopedias, dictionaries and in the research literature.
The validity of non-probability samples can be increased by trying to approximate random selection, and by eliminating as many sources of bias as possible. A research is biased or fake if there is no validity or reliability in the research process.
Credibility comes with the use of the best source of information and best procedures in research. Validity can be increased by approximating random selection as much as possible, and making every attempt to avoid introducing bias into sample selection.
The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.
The key to random selection is that there is no bias involved in the selection of the sample. This is a secondary or special type of independent variable chosen by the researcher to determine if it changes or modifies the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The controlled factors or variables should have to be controlled rigorously.
The system that a researcher follows to find out the facts that are hidden and not known to people, determines the validity, genuineness and reliability of research. Stratified sample A stratified sample is a mini-reproduction of the population. They provide the most valid or credible results because they reflect the characteristics of the population from which they are selected e.
The researcher sets a quotaindependent of population characteristics. Reliability is a subjective term which can not be measured precisely, but today there are instruments which can estimate the reliability of any research. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena.
However, the sample will no longer be representative of the actual proportions in the population. A researcher is interested in the attitudes of members of different religions towards the death penalty. In pure sciences, it is very easy to control such elements because experiments are conducted in the laboratory but in social sciences it becomes difficult to control these factors because of the nature of research.
Systematic approach is the only approach to carry on a research. If you are using second-hand information in your research due to any reason your research might complete in less time but its credibility will be at stake because secondary data has been manipulated by human beings and is therefore not very valid to use in research.
This is generally done to insure the inclusion of a particular segment of the population. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material things of a group of people.
Although selection may be unguided, it probably is not random, using the correct definition of everyone in the population having an equal chance of being selected. This is done in the library where answers to specific questions or problems of the study are available.
Without validity, research goes in the wrong direction. There are set of procedures that have been tested over a period of time and are thus suitable to use in research.
Fundamental research, of which this is based on establishing various theories Also the research is classified into: However, a researcher may not be able to obtain a random or stratified sample, or it may be too expensive. There are other definitions of research which also state that research is the seeking of knowledge in systematic, organized manner.
Characteristics of Research Certain terms are very commonly used in research and the success of any research depends on these terms.
A snowball sample is achieved by asking a participant to suggest someone else who might be willing or appropriate for the study.Research question development What does existence of feeling or experience indicate concerning the phenomenon to be explored What are necessary & sufficient constituents of feeling or experience?
Before sampling, the population is divided into characteristics of importance for the research. For example, by gender, social class, education level, religion, etc.
Then the population is randomly sampled within each category or stratum. For further details, you can read his book Research Methodology to gain more insight into the characteristics of research. Definition More than hundreds of definitions of research have been available in written form in different books, encyclopedias, dictionaries and in the research literature.
TYPES OF RESEARCH The different characteristics of research: Research May be Applied or Basic The purpose of applied research is to solve an.
Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups.
chapter 1: meaning and characteristics of research ü Meaning of Research Research is defined as the scientific investigation of phenomena which includes collection, presentation, analysis and interpretation of facts that lines an .Download